Occasional Papers

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Occasional Papers are synthetic works with a topical focus. This series contains the publications that result from the annual Visiting Scholar Conference as well as other thematic volumes. There have been 35 Occasional Papers published to date. Out-of-print volumes are designated by an asterisk (*) after the title.

Please also see our ordering information. Contact Robin Adams via phone (618-453-5031) or e-mail (robin.cai@siu.edu) with questions about our publications. Click these links for information about Research Paper publications or Other Publications.

Click on titles to view table of contents information for in-print volumes.

Making Senses of the Past Cover 40. Making Senses of the Past: Toward a Sensory Archaeology

Jo Day (editor) 2013

(xiv + 429 pages, 115 figures, 5 tables. ISBN 978-0-8093-3287-8)

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A wide-ranging exploration of sensory archaeology, this twenty-chapter volume touches on multisensory and synesthetic aspects of the production and consumption of material culture, embodied feasting and ritual, and architecture and the environment in the Americas, Europe, New Zealand, and the Middle East, from ancient to modern times. It also broaches the issues inherent in representing the sensory past and the importance of challenging the Western rubric when evaluating the usefulness of sensory experience in our archaeological endeavors.

Archaeology of Hybrid Material Culture Cover 39. The Archaeology of Hybrid Material Culture

Jeb J. Card (editor) 2013

(xiv + 510 pages, 135 figures, 22 tables. ISBN 978-0-8093-3314-1)

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This volume discusses the concept of hybridity in material culture and its relationship to archaeological classification and ethnogenesis and provides theoretical and concrete tools for investigating objects and architecture with discernible multiple influences. The 21 chapters are organized into 4 parts that deal with ceramic change in colonial Latin America and the Caribbean, ethnicity and material culture in Latin America, culture contact and transformation in technological style, and materiality and identity. In addition to ceramics, the media examined include stone and glass implements, textiles, bone, architecture, and mortuary and bioarchaeological artifacts from North, South, and Central America, Hawaii’i, the Caribbean, Europe, and Mesopotamia. Cultures used to document hybridity in the studies contained in this volume comprise Bronze Age British, Iron Age and Roman European, Uruk, Spanish colonial, Pueblo, Apalachee, Nahua Pipil, Andean, Mayan, Mousterian, Kayenta, Salado, Hawaiian, Mandan, Hidatsa, Illinois, Manhanset, and African diasporic.

Human variation in the Americas cover 38. Human Variation in the Americas: The Integration of Archaeology and Biological Anthropology

Benjamin M. Auerbach (editor) 2010

(xiv + 376 pages, 43 figures, 42 tables. ISBN 978-0-88104-095-1)

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Human Variation in the Americas provides a timely synthesis of archaeological and biological data on human diversity in the precontact Americas. The volume's thirteen chapters employ a variety of research methods--including genetic analysis, morphometry studies, isotope analysis, and discrete dental trait examination--to address population migration as well as specific regional questions. The precontact Americas are well represented with archaeological sites from Beringia, the Columbia Plateau, the U.S. Southwest, the Great Plains, the Ohio River valley, and the Moquegua Valley of southern Peru.

Archaeology of anthropogenic environments cover 37. The Archaeology of Anthropogenic Environments 

Rebecca M. Dean (editor), 2010

(xiv + 408 pages, 92 figures, 25 tables. ISBN 978-0-88104-094-4)

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Bringing together a variety of regional and methodological perspectives, this volume "represents the culmination of the past century's integration of anthropology and environmental studies, as well as documents the development of new ways of defining, interpreting, and understanding human-created environments."

Religion, archaeology, and the material world cover 36. Religion, Archaeology, and the Material World 

Lars Fogelin (editor), 2008

(xii + 366 pages, 99 figures, 11 tables. ISBN 978-0-88104-093-7)

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The authors of this volume present a variety of strategies for the archaeological investigation of religion drawn from widely divergent geographic and temporal contexts. While necessarily including discussions of different theoretical understandings of religion, the central goal of the volume is to explore how archaeologists can effectively employ the material remains of past societies to construct informed understandings of religion and ritual. In this sense, the volume is a methodological primer on the archaeology of religion. A unifying theme of the essays is the value of using multiple perspectives or approaches. Different authors combine studies of iconography, symbolism, landscape, architecture, history, ethnohistory, and mortuary archaeology to construct theoretically sophisticated and methodologically robust understandings of ancient religion and ritual.

The durable house cover 35. The Durable House: House Society Models in Archaeology 

Robin A. Beck, Jr. (editor), 2007

(xii + 516 pages, 98 figures, 8 tables. ISBN 978-0-88104-092-0)

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This volume highlights the economic, ritual, and political organization of the social house, as originally defined by Claude Lévi-Strauss. Given its emphasis on the material conditions of social life, the house concept offers archaeologists a fertile ground for understanding change in complex societies, especially with respect to relations of status, hierarchy, and identity. One of the primary goals of this volume, then, is to foreground the materiality of the house, and to demonstrate that archaeology is uniquely positioned to inform anthropological perspectives on the concept. By drawing together a diverse group of scholars, case studies, and theoretical approaches that span a range of complex societies across the Old World and the Americas, this volume offers a timely and comparative collection of archaeological insights on the social house.

Archaeology of food and identity 34. The Archaeology of Food and Identity 

Katheryn C. Twiss (editor), 2007

(xii + 340 pages, 67 figures, 16 tables. ISBN 978-0-88104-091-6)

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The chapters in this topically and methodologically diverse volume discuss the role food plays in the construction and maintenance of multiple levels of social identity; they also illustrate the myriad ways in which archaeologists may approach the issue. The book includes essays from archaeologists working in a wide range of time periods and areas: prehistorians and historical archaeologists, specialists in the Old World, and experts on the New World. Contributors use diverse data sets to discuss how food-procurement strategies, consumption patterns, and modes of cooking and dining are intertwined with the construction and maintenance of individual and group identities.

leadership and polity cover 33. Leadership and Polity in Mississippian Society 

Brian M. Butler and Paul D. Welch (editors), 2006

(xiii +410 pages, 67 figures, 16 tables. ISBN 0-88104-090-8)

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The late prehistoric societies of the eastern United States that are loosely termed Mississippian are thought to have been led by chiefs. Though great variation in the scale and longevity of those societies has long been recognized, variation in the structure of leadership in them has usually been dichotomized into “simple” vs. “complex” chiefdoms. The contributors to this volume argue for a much richer view of variation in Mississippian leadership structures, including variation in gender relations, economic structure, political institutions, and religious organization.

biomolecular archaeology 32. Biomolecular Archaeology: Genetic Approaches to the Past 

David M. Reed (editor), 2005

(x +246 pages, 51 figures, 21 tables. ISBN 0-88104-089-4)

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The application of molecular genetics to the study of the human past has grown in sophistication and in the range of topics influenced. The projects presented in this volume are aimed at understanding the population histories of the Americas, Africa, Europe, and the Pacific at local, regional, and continental scales. Samples of analysis that are discussed come from living humans, plants, animals, and skeletal remains. Anthropological genetics holds great potential for exploring prehistory. These essays demonstrate that recent advances and improvements in the laboratory, analytic methods, and a more comprehensive understanding of human genetics provide new avenues for revealing who we are, where we came from, how we organize ourselves, how we are related to each other, and how we have changed over time.

Hunters and gatherers cover 31. Hunters and Gatherers in Theory and Archaeology 

George M. Crothers (editer), 2004

(xii +492 pages, 106 figures, 43 tables. ISBN 0-88104-087-8)

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The contributions in this volume reflect the diverse and anthropologically current debate flourishing in prehistoric hunter and gatherer research. Highlighting research in Africa, Australia, Europe, North America, and the Subarctic, theoretical approaches range from the ecological to the sociological. Methodological topics include optimal foraging, settlement models, population dynamics, lithic and faunal studies, ethnoarchaeology, and oral history. These essays show that the study of prehistoric hunters and gatherers is making great strides to integrate the social, economic, and political dimensions of forager behavior.

Dynamics of power cover 30. The Dynamics of Power 

Maria O’Donovan (editor), 2002

(xii + 404 pages, 56 figures, 8 tables. ISBN 0-88104-086-X)

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This volume focuses on social power and power relations based on gender, kinship, class, and other social criteria within a multiscalar framework. Contributions address theoretical and methodological issues of archaeological approaches to power at the levels of household, community, and region, or landscape, and consider how power relations interact between these levels. The essays offer new insights into the relationships between power, agency, and scale within diverse contexts that range from prehistoric societies to early-twentieth-century coal mining towns.

Fleeting identities cover 28. Fleeting Identities: Perishable Material Culture in Archaeological Research

Penelope Ballard Drooker (editor), 2001

(xii + 410 pages, 94 figures, 21 tables. ISBN 0-88104-085-1)

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By one estimate, artifacts fashioned from organic and other fragile materials make up as much as 90%-95% of original material culture remains, yet at most archaeological sites, less than 20% of recovered material culture is organic. This volume focuses on insights difficult to obtain without the consideration of such perishable evidence. Contributions from archaeologists, cultural anthropologists, ethnohistorians, linguists, paleoethnobotanists, and conservators address broad theoretical and methodological concerns and investigate a wide variety of anthropologically oriented research questions.

Hierarchies in action cover 27. Hierarchies in Action: Cui Bono?

Michael W. Diehl (editor), 2000

(x + 380 pages, 31 figures, 23 tables. ISBN 0-88104-084-3)

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The contributors to this volume challenge normative models and assumptions about the evolution of hierarchical social, economic, and political structures. The volume includes archaeological, ethnological, and primatological case studies that address the thematic question, who benefits, and how, from the operation of hierarchies? The chapters in this volume are diverse. They include (1) compelling challenges to the assumption that "egalitarian" human societies have ever existed, (2) explorations of the importance of individual self-interest in the promotion and maintenance of hierarchies, and (3) archaeological studies of the visibility and operation of hierarchies in prehistoric contexts.

Material symbols cover 26. Material Symbols: Culture and Economy in Prehistory

John E. Robb (editor), 1999

(x + 414 pages, 43 figures, 16 tables. ISBN 0-88104-083-5)

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How people work, make things, give or exchange them, and keep them or destroy them derive as much from symbolism as from simple "economic" behavior. The case studies in this volume analyze the economics and symbols of cosmology, power, and prestige in societies around the world from the Paleolithic through recent empires. The resulting works draw new and diverse paths in the understanding of meaning, politics, and material behavior in ancient societies.

Studies in culture contact cover 25. Studies in Culture Contact: Interaction, Culture Change, and Archaeology

James G. Cusick (editor), 1998 

(x + 501 pages, 54 figures, 13 tables. ISBN 0-88104-082-7)

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This volume builds on the platform erected during the 1992 Columbus Quincentennial but also seeks to redress some of the inadequacies of that platform. It broadens the topic of culture contact to its most appropriate field of inquiry--human world history. Essays by 20 authors explicitly address different frameworks for the study of culture contact and apply those frameworks to the interpretation of archaeological data.

Integrating archaeological demography cover 24. Integrating Archaeological Demography: Multidisciplinary Approaches to Prehistoric Population

Richard R. Paine (editor), 1997

(xvi + 395 pages, 59 figures, 65 tables. ISBN 0-88104-081-9)

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Selected papers from this conference explore the role of population studies in anthropological explanation by examining relationships between population, resources, and culture change and by investigating the data, methods, and theoretical models of prehistoric demography. Settlement archaeologists and biological and demographic anthropologists examine the explanatory potential of integrated approaches to prehistoric demography.

New methods old problems cover 23. New Methods, Old Problems: Geographic Information Systems in Modern Archaeological Research*

Herbert D. G. Maschner (editor), 1996

(xv + 315 pages, 91 figures, 33 tables. ISBN 0-88104-079-7)

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This volume brings together an international group of scholars seeking to integrate geographic information systems (GIS) technology with modern archaeological method and theory. The book is divided into four groups of papers that use GIS to investigate a broad range of topics including visualization techniques, territoriality, predictive modeling, cognition, and ideology. It is hoped that the volume will go far in advancing the use of GIS technology in archaeology while pursuing a suite of questions of archaeological importance.

Paleonutrition 22. Paleonutrition: The Diet and Health of Prehistoric Americans

Kristin D. Sobolik (editor), 1994

(xviii + 321 pages, 55 figures, 29 tables. ISBN 0-88104-078-9)

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Scholars working in all aspects of dietary and health reconstruction present their research and its applications to the study of paleonutrition, the limitations of each dietary assemblage in determining paleonutrition, and how those limitations can be alleviated. The 24 scholars present data on the advances that have been made in understanding the nutrition of prehistoric Americans and how those studies have helped define the integrative basis of such research.

From bones to behavior cover 21. From Bones to Behavior: Ethnoarchaeological and Experimental Contributions to the Interpretation of Faunal Remains*

Jean Hudson (editor), 1993

(xvii + 354 pages, 73 figures, 33 tables. ISBN 0-88104-076-2)

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Focused on hunter-gatherer subsistence, settlement, and social interaction, as well as taphonomic processes affecting bone, the volume includes 15 research papers and 4 integrative discussions by major North American scholars. Authors use data from Africa, Europe, and North America to address a variety of topics, including hunting strategies, butchering and cooking, utility indexes, site function, food sharing, carnivore damage, and density-mediated attrition.

Quandaries and quests 20. Quandaries and Quests: Visions of Archaeology’s Future*

LuAnn Wandsnider (editor), 1992

(x + 273 pages, 14 figures, 4 tables. ISBN 0-88104-075-4)

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This volume examines the present, projected, and desired states of Americanist archaeology. Archaeological scholars of diverse backgrounds address current quandaries in the field and outline programmatic quests for their resolution. Essays address matters both internal and external to the discipline, as well as practical (e.g., CRM, funding sources, Native American relations) and theoretical issues.

Archaeological chronometry 16. Archaeological Chronometry: Radiocarbon and Tree-Ring Models and Applications from Black Mesa, Arizona

Francis E. Smiley and Richard V.N. Ahlstrom, 1998

(xviii + 310 pages, 89 figures, 31 tables. ISBN 0-88104-080-0)

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All archaeologists face chronometric interpretive problems in developing and refining chronology. This volume addresses such problems in terms of radiocarbon and tree rings. The book provides both data sets and models for the interpretation of radiocarbon and tree-ring information. It is designed to serve at various levels as a guide for interpreting chronological data from archaeological contexts. The volume presents the results of almost 20 years of field research on Black Mesa, Arizona,that involved a significant focus on both chronometry and chronology.

Function and technology cover 15. Function and Technology of Anasazi Ceramics from Black Mesa, Arizona

Marion F. Smith, Jr. (editor), 1994

(xiv + 253 pages, 30 figures, 67 tables. ISBN 0-88104-077-0)

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This edited volume emphasizes the functional and technological interpretations of reconstructible vessels from the three-century Anasazi occupation of Black Mesa, Arizona. The most important findings of the ceramic study relate to potential explanations for the dramatic changes in Anasazi settlement on northeastern Black Mesa during roughly the last century of their occupation, A.D.1050-1150. Ceramic evidence suggests that the major florescence of the Anasazi population was supported by an intensification of the subsistence system, presumably agricultural.

Black mesa anasazi health cover 14. Black Mesa Anasazi Health: Reconstructing Life from Patterns of Death and Disease*

Debra L. Martin, Alan H. Goodman, George J. Armelagos, and Ann L. Magennis, 1991

(xix + 314 pages, 25 plates, 68 figures, 120 tables. ISBN 0-88104-073-8)

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This volume applies a biocultural approach for reconstructing the health of past peoples. Remains of prehistoric Anasazi from the American Southwest in conjunction with archaeological data provide an account of Anasazi adaptation. Despite evidence of nutritional and infectious diseases, this precontact Native American group demonstrates biological adaptation and cultural resiliency over several hundred years.

Anasazi faunal exploitation cover 13. Anasazi Faunal Exploitation: Prehistoric Subsistence on Northern Black Mesa, Arizona*

Robert D. Leonard, 1989

(xiv + 218 pages, 53 figures, 33 tables. ISBN 0-88104-069-X)

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Natural, cultural, and archaeological processes have shaped faunal assemblages on northern Black Mesa sites. Using archaeofaunal materials recovered from Black Mesa and botanical materials from the northern Southwest, the author provides information pertinent to agricultural development and to the prehistoric subsistence practices of inhabitants.

Prehistoric stone technology 12. Prehistoric Stone Technology on Northern Black Mesa, Arizona

William J. Parry and Andrew L. Christenson, with a contribution by Catherine M. Cameron, 1987

(xx + 312 pages, 16 plates, 20 figures, 119 tables. ISBN 0-88104-052-5)

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This volume summarizes several analyses of stone artifacts from Anasazi sites on Black Mesa. Topics covered include the sources of stone used for toolmaking, the composition of the prehistoric tool kit, the morphology of retouched tools, and the technology of stone manufacture. Particular emphasis is placed on describing changes in stone artifacts over time from 6000 B.C. to A.D. 1150.

Chipped stone raw materials cover 11. Chipped Stone Raw Materials and the Study of Interaction on Black Mesa, Arizona

Margerie Green, 1985

(xviii + 212 pages, 46 figures, 28 tables. ISBN 0-88104-051-7)

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This volume documents changes in interaction over time on Black Mesa. Green tests several models of culture change and provides descriptions of raw materials and maps of source areas.

Processual and postprocessual archaeologies 10. Processual and Postprocessual Archaeologies: Multiple Ways of Knowing the Past

Robert W. Preucel (editor), 1991

(xii + 324 pages, 18 figures, 1 table. ISBN 0-88104-074-6)

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Selected papers from the 1989 Visiting Scholar Conference evaluate the current status of multiple archaeological research programs. By situating processual and postprocessual research programs critically against one another, these papers go beyond polemics to examine the central issues that structure the current debate in archaeology and explore their areas of agreement and dispute.

cover photo 9. Between Bands and States*

Susan A. Gregg (editor), 1991

(xix + 450 pages, 59 figures, 20 tables. ISBN 0-88104-072-X)

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Selected papers from the 1988 Visiting Scholar Conference examine diversity and interaction among sedentary, small-scale, nonhierarchical societies. Sedentism, subsistence, population interaction, and maintenance of autonomy in the face of long-term interaction with complex systems are considered for Old and New World contexts, drawing from archaeological and ethnographic examples.

Archaeological investigations cover 8. Archaeological Investigations on the North Coast of Rota, Mariana Islands

Brian M. Butler (editor), 1988

(xxxii + 504 pages, 33 plates, 69 figures, 116 tables. ISBN 0-88104-066-5)

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Four sites located on coastal sand ridges on the north coast of Rota in the Mariana Islands contain materials dating from ca. 800 B.C. to the collapse of traditional Chamorro culture under Spanish domination in the late seventeenth century. Although disturbed by major storm events, these deposits provide information for over 2,000 years of Marianas prehistory. This report emphasizes the emergence of the late prehistoric Latte phase, analysis of the substantial fishbone and shellfish remains, and a human skeletal series of 27 individuals.

cover photo 7. Emergent Horticultural Economies of the Eastern Woodlands*

William F. Keegan (editor), 1987

(xxviii + 371 pages, 58 figures, 24 tables. ISBN 0-88104-064-9)

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Selected papers from the 1986 Visiting Scholar Conference address a broad range of issues regarding early horticulture in the eastern Woodlands. Specific topics include the origins of indigenous seed-bearing cultigens, the evolution of horticultural production, and the adoption and intensification of tropical cultigens leading to the maize-dominated agricultural system of the Mississippian period.

cover photo 6. Foraging, Collecting, and Harvesting: Archaic Period Subsistence and Settlement in the Eastern Woodlands*

Sarah W. Neusius (editor), 1986

(xxvii + 330 pages, 48 figures, 49 tables. ISBN 0-88104-058-4)

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Selected papers from the 1985 Visiting Scholar Conference offer a cross section of leading research on Archaic hunter-gatherer subsistence. The volume includes both theoretical and case studies drawn from the Midwest and Southeast.

cover photo 5. Prehistoric Cultural Development in Central Arizona: Archaeology of the Upper New River Region*

Patricia M. Spoerl and George J. Gumerman (editors), 1984

(xviii + 381 pages, 60 plates, 66 figures, 88 tables. ISBN 0-88104-050-9)

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Investigations by the Central Arizona Ecotone Project in the vicinity of New River, Arizona, involved transect and block surveys and excavations at pithouse, masonry, and hilltop “defensive” sites. Patterns of subsistence, exchange, and warfare are examined in this little-explored ecological and cultural transitional region.

cover photo 4. Lithic Resource Procurement: Proceedings from the Second Conference on Prehistoric Chert Exploitation*

Susan C. Vehik (editor), 1984

(xv + 268 pages, 4 plates, 53 figures, 38 tables. ISBN 0-88104-022-3)

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Papers from the 1984 conference on prehistoric chert exploitation include studies from both the Old and New World. They address the social organization of lithic procurement and processing, techno-functional variation and material exploitation strategies, and source-area definition and methods of identification.

cover photo 3. Pisekin Nóómw Nóón Tonaachaw: Archeology in the Tonaachaw Historic District, Moen Island, Truk

Thomas F. King and Patricia L. Parker, 1984 

(xxxii + 541 pages, 6 plates, 202 figures, 159 tables. ISBN 0-88104-018-5)

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The volume presents results of archaeological and ethnographic work conducted for the Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands. Each chapter includes Trukese language summaries. Events of central importance in Trukese history and tradition are associated with the Historic District to conserve an endangered archaeological record.

cover photo 2. Prehistoric Chert Exploitation: Studies from the Midcontinent*

Brian M. Butler and Ernest E. May (editors), 1984

(xxiv + 350 pages, 9 plates, 68 figures, 69 tables. ISBN 0-88104-008-8)

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Papers from the 1981 conference address exploitation patterns and source-area identification of chipped-stone materials commonly encountered in the midcontinent. Specific topics include chert quarrying, local and regional patterns of chert procurement and utilization, source-area identification, and trace element analysis.